Target Malaria started its work in Ghana in 2018, in partnership with the University of Ghana, Legon.
Different from other African countries where Target Malaria is present, Target Malaria Ghana does not have plans of working with modified mosquitoes. Instead, one of the main areas of research of our work is to understand what could happen if the population of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, the primary vector of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa, were to be substantially reduced or eliminated. This is part of the project’s commitment to responsible research: we need to ensure that if we were to release modified mosquitoes in the environment in the future, they would not harm the environment or our health.
The development of a local DNA barcode reference library of insects is part of Target Malaria Ghana’s activities. It will help answer a wide range of ecological questions that are not restricted to our project. Using samples collected from our studies sites, the research will shed light on the interactions among communities of arthropods and vertebrates, building a quantitative ecological network that enables the modelling of Anopheles gambiae’s impact on the ecosystem.
Controlling mosquitoes is a vital part of any integrated strategy to fight malaria. Target Malaria team at the laboratory of Professor Andrea Crisanti at Imperial College London has been working on developing novel genetic technologies as a tool to fight the disease and to complement existing vector control methods. Our strategy focuses on decreasing the number of female vector mosquitoes in a population because only females bite and transmit the disease, and their number usually determines population size and transmission rates.
There are two approaches to control the number of mosquitoes in a population. One way is to impact the ability of mosquitoes to reproduce, for instance by generating infertile females. Another method is to unbalance the male-to-female ratio generating a unisexual population leading to collapse. Achieving a male-only mosquito population has been the holy grail of vector control for long time.
We are pleased to announce that the team has been able to generate a driving male-biased sex distorter and eliminate caged populations of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes. This is the subject of a paper just published in Nature Biotechnology, of which I am proud to be the lead author, entitled “A Male-biased Sex-Distorter Gene Drive for the Human Malaria Vector Anopheles gambiae”.
Back in 2016, the WHO Strategic Advisory Group on Malaria Eradication (SAGme) received the task to evaluate future scenarios for malaria, including whether it was feasible to eradicate the disease. Few years have passed, and after in-depth analysis and numerous consultations with malaria and health experts, the research outcomes are finally available.
The new report “Malaria eradication: benefits, future scenarios & feasibility” reaffirms WHO’s goal to eliminate the disease and reminds us that a malaria-free world is possible – if all of us commit to it. After considering factors and trends, members of the SAGme reached a consensus: the elimination of the disease would save millions of lives and generate substantial investment return. In terms of the feasibility of eradication, the experts concluded that theoretically no biological (on part of parasite, vector, or human host) or environmental limitations exist to prevent eradication. However, they note that available tools are not sufficient and that new tools must be found to achieve this eradication.
For us at Target Malaria, these findings come with no surprises. Our daily work is motivated by the belief that malaria’s social and economic burden can be eliminated, and that we should do everything in our power to prevent mosquito bites to threaten people’s lives.
The 2020 World Malaria Day taking place on April 25 comes at a challenging time when the world is grappling with the COVID-19 pandemic.
In a statement released on March 25, the RBM Partnership to End Malaria stresses “the need to maintain malaria elimination efforts throughout COVID-19 pandemic” and emphasizes why resilient and robust health systems are necessary now more than ever as the world faces emerging pandemics while having to protect vulnerable populations against existing threats, including malaria.
Physical gatherings will not be taking place in order to guarantee the imperatives of social distancing to prevent the spread of the virus, the day will still be celebrated virtually. WHO and the RBM Partnership are promoting a grassroot campaign “Zero Malaria Starts with Me”, which seeks to mobilize political support and empower communities to take ownership of malaria prevention and care.
To celebrate World Malaria Day, we would like to share with you the profiles of Target Malaria’s champions: our project’s Principal Investigators in the countries and at the global level.
Each of them is a malaria champion making a contribution to the fight against malaria day by day in his work.
Learn more about their personal and professional stories:
Principal Investigator of Target Malaria Ghana and Senior Lecturer in Medical Entomology & (…)
Principal Investigator of Target Malaria and Professor of Evolutionary Genetics at Imperial College London (…)
Principal Investigator of Target Malaria in Mali and Head of Genomics laboratory at MRTC (…)
Principal Investigator of Target Malaria Burkina Faso and Head of the Medical Entomology & Parasitology (…)
Principal Investigator for Target Malaria in Uganda and Senior Research Officer for the Department of Entomology (…)
The global theme for World Malaria Day, ‘Zero Malaria Starts with Me’, emphasizes everyone’s power and responsibility to ensure no one dies from a mosquito bite. The theme is inspired by the pan-African movement of the same name. High-burden countries in Africa account for approximately 70% of the global malaria burden.
Target Malaria is present in four African countries and we would like to celebrate the incredible work done by each team in their fight against malaria.
Learn more about Target Malaria’s countries:
Every April 7, we celebrate World Health Day, which marks the founding of the World Health Organization (WHO). This date has been used to raise awareness of serious health issues worldwide, leading to numerous successful health campaigns throughout the last decades. In 2020, the WHO chose to remind us about the importance of nurses and midwives to keep the world safe and healthy. Also celebrated this week, the World Health Worker Week follows a similar path, recognising the heroic efforts of frontline health professionals.
The COVID-19 pandemic has now reached almost every corner of the world, and that includes the Target Malaria network of partners, or family as I prefer to think of them. All of our partner sites are affected, and we – as a project – are feeling the impact of the disease in one form or another. The situation is changing on a daily basis, and as a project we need to be ready to adapt and work to ensure the safety of our team members, partners, and other stakeholders involved in project activities. Target Malaria is defined by its people, and our first and foremost concern is their health and safety, we are here to support in any way we can.
Join us in congratulating Target Malaria team member and Burkina Faso Principal Investigator Dr Abdoulaye Diabaté and his team of eight researchers based in the United States and Burkina Faso for receiving the 2019 Newcomb Cleveland Prize at the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS).
A couple of months ago I was contacted by Luca Pellegrino, a young journalist from Scientificast, an Italian scientific network that has the mission to divulgate science in a way that is accessible to everyone, especially a non-technical audience.