We are quite excited about the new challenges this year brings to the Target Malaria team in Mali. We have made great progress and are enthusiastic to build further on the strong foundations we have established as a team and as an international not-for-profit research consortium. To that end, we have invested in capacity building with trainings, equipment and technology transfer to prepare us for a new exciting phase. The team is very optimistic even though a substantial amount of work is ahead of us.
Target Malaria would like to take the opportunity of World Malaria Day to bring focus on an underlying fact in the worldwide struggle against malaria: insecticide and drug resistance and the need for new vector control tools.
Thanks to the mobilization of resources and political will, malaria control and elimination efforts over the past 17 years have resulted in nearly 7 million lives saved, hundreds of millions of infections averted and over US$2 trillion added to the economies of endemic countries. However, malaria remains a deadly threat, in 2015 alone malaria caused the death of 429 000 people, of whom 70% were children under five years old.
It’s an exciting and busy year for Target Malaria in Uganda as plans to build an insectary are now finalized and the implementation has begun.
The site is being prepared and field locations are being expanded. The team is collecting base-line entomological data to help characterise local mosquito populations as well as setting up specialised physical infrastructure and conducting stakeholder engagement activities to explain the project to the local population.
The Target Malaria project has been underway for over 4 years, building on over a decade of prior research. What started as a university-based research programme is now an international not-for-profit multi-disciplinary consortium driven by a common goal: eliminating malaria by reducing malaria-carrying mosquitoes with the use of our innovative technology.
Austin Burt’s idea was started initially with only a small scientific research team working to develop his theory at Imperial College London in the laboratory of Andrea Crisanti. Since then we are proud to have grown to what is now an international team of more than 100 people in 7 countries on 3 continents.
Target Malaria teams are working at various levels with stakeholder engagement. These include international and national stakeholders, working with the local communities in which the baseline fieldwork is taking place, with the communities around the insectary, and with local and national authorities. Our teams are committed to explain the project and its phases, answer questions and address any concerns that may arise.
As we start a new year I want to take a moment to look back at some of the key milestones of the one just past. It started with a bang – another tour-de-force publication from the lab of Andrea Crisanti, this one identifying three genes in malaria-transmitting mosquitoes that match the criteria we were looking for, and demonstrating very high homing rates at all three. This was proof of principle that we can make strong gene drive constructs targeting specific genes in the mosquito. Quite rightly, the paper received a great deal of interest from both the scientific community and the media, including the BBC, International Business Times, Nature, STAT, The Wall Street Journal, Forbes, India Today and The Japan Times.
Target Malaria is attending the UN Biodiversity conference this week. We are excited about this oppportunity to meet so many groups involved in conservation and sustainability work, but we’re also very concerned by a push to see a ban on gene drive adopted here. Bans cannot help us make informed decisions – it is so early still in the research process, so of course we don’t have all the answers. Does it mean we should stop everything? No.
I had the chance to speak at the annual Grand Challenges meeting in London. It was an incredible opportunity to share my personal experience of malaria and why the work we do is so important. Malaria is one of the deadliest parasitic diseases. It has killed millions of people, but I am a fortunate survivor. When you look at the statistics of malaria, the numbers are speaking for themselves. 200 million cases of which 400 000 dying every year. These numbers give you a notion of scale, but more than numbers they speak to our consciousness, as these 400 000 deaths are linked to tremendous emotional suffering.
Bednets and IRS have done an incredible job by cutting down the death toll of the disease to less than 400 000 per year. This has brought a smile to many faces, but the question is — for how long? We are facing mounting challenges. Insecticide resistance is growing fast, big and noxious, making it clear that unless new tools are found to complement existing ones, we may never cross the last mile of malaria elimination.
But we could be getting closer to eliminating malaria with new emerging technologies being a part of the solution. I believe the work we’re doing through Target Malaria can help achieve a world free of malaria in my lifetime. I know it seems ambitious, but just as I told the people at Grand Challenges, we’ve been ambitious before: we are now thinking of settling on Mars and we’ve been doing space missions for about 50 years. Why should we not be as ambitious about a disease that affects millions of people every year, just on our door step?
It was great to see our work and that of other teams doing ground breaking research — like Eliminate Dengue — recognised in London and I am now back in Burkina working with my team with ever more determination!
Last week the team joined an exciting discussion on gene drive for malaria control in Nairobi. The event was co-hosted by the African Academy of Sciences (AAS) and the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (FNIH) and focused on how gene drive technology could be harnessed to address malaria in Africa. It was good to see leading African scientists from across the region discussing this, and focusing not only on the scientific hurdles, e.g. the dearth of home-grown technological capacity, to be overcome, but also the political-level dialogue that needs to be built to enable these types of tools to be developed. For example, there was confidence that regional bodies like the East-African Community (EAC) and COMESA are important bodies to engage. Also that lessons and cues could be learned from other sectors like agriculture, where biological pest control and plant trials and releases have already been done.
We had an excellent cross-section of experts in the room, from Gabon and Cameroon to Morocco and Tanzania, and of course Kenya. One of the key takeaways from the day was the interest of colleagues in the region for these new types of technologies, as well as some careful reflection on how gene drive would fit in with existing tools, such as bednets and drugs. The mood is best captured by one of the moderator’s remarks along these lines: “Use of genetic modification and gene-drive to control vector-borne diseases could be risky and expensive but saving lives is priceless and the greater risk is doing nothing”. We hope this is one in many similar workshops to take place in the region in the years to come.
It is good to see more thinking going into the guidance needed to do research well. The Nuffield Council on Bioethics published a new report last week on genome editing entitled “Genome editing: an ethical review”, which highlighted some important questions we all need to consider. From our perspective, we see this type of conversation as essential and while much of the report was about other fields than insects and vector control, we look forward to more coming from the Council in the coming months. For a good overview of the issues at stake, look at the short (or long!) version online